The SCADA framework is presented with basic information explaining the operating status of the network. It is automatically obtained by equipment at different substations and facilities, manually entered from the operator to show, or measured by field crews, the state of manual operation of non-automated systems. The information is handled in all cases in the same manner.
Configuration indicators reflect the status of switching devises and warning signals. These indications are touch clocks connected to Remote Communications System digital input boards, such as RTU.
One bit is the near touch, while the other bit reflects the open contact. It allows identification of false and medium values (00 or 11 states), which would result in an alarm failure due to stuck or incomplete switching. Errors may also be found in the control circuits the measured values represent different times of voltage, current, temperature and the power system tap changer. It is divided into two basic forms analog and digital. The A / D converter transforms all the analog signals into a binary format.; they must be normalized before being stored in the SCADA database since they are regarded as momentaries. The analysis (polling) of the calculated value takes place cyclically or only in the event of a shift in value ideology with regard to dead bands (reporting by exception). Digitally encoded values are common for various settings including tap changes and (Smart Electronic Device) IED health checks. Pulses or IEDs typically have energy values. RTUs with pulse meters, at predefined demand intervals or intermediate points, are instructed to submit the pulse details when necessary. For the time interval specified, the contents of the continuous counter are transferred and the procedure for the next interval is repeated.
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